Convert Metric Times
Achieved in a 25-Meter
or 50-Meter Pool to an
Equivalent Time for a
25-Yard Pool, or

MAC Team Members
Receive 10% OFF!
Enter Promo Code: MAC

MAC Team Members
Receive 10% OFF!

Swim News:

Summer 2016 Practice Schedule:

The schedule will run June 20th through Labor Day Weekend:

Monday PM 6:00-7:30 Pond (Spring Mill Pond)

Tuesday AM 5:15-6:45 Pool (LHS)
Tuesday AM 9:15-10:45 Pond (Spring Mill Pond, Island Lake Recreation Area)

Wednesday AM 9:15-10:45 Pool (MHS)

Thursday AM 5:15-6:45 Pool (LHS)

Friday AM 9:15-10:45 Pool (MHS)

Saturday AM 8:00 Trout Lake, Island Lake Recreation Area (Unofficial)

Sunday AM 8:15-10:00 Pool (Walnut Creek Country Club) $5.00 fee (exact change please), must be USMS registered swimmer.
Walnut Creek Country Club's address is:
25501 Johns Rd, South Lyon, MI 48178

The pool is a 25 meter outdoor pool. The $5 charge per person (exact change please), per swim helps pay for the facilities, lifeguards, and coaches.

The club is located just north of 10 Mile Road, on the west side of Johns Road. When you come in the main entrance you will pass the tennis courts and pro shop building on your right. You will make a right turn into the main parking lot and drive all the way to the end - the pool house is at the end of the lot. Please drive around to the right side of the pool house and park in the side lot so you can see the pools. Sundays are a fairly busy golf days so we need to leave the main parking lot for the members. Entrance to the pool is through both of the locker rooms. There are locker and shower facilities available.

It will be a coached practice with coaches rotating based on their schedules.

The pool is typically at 84 degrees. Practice will be cancelled for storms or inclement weather and an email will be sent out as early as possible, based on Michigan's ever changing weather. Bottom line, be sure to check your e-mail before heading out the door!

Kickboards are at the pool but no other equipment available - bring your gear bag to all practices.


Open water:
strategies, techniques and tactics

• Pool swimming is very controlled - when you're at a meet it's unlikely much is going to happen to you in between the lane lines. In open water it's the complete opposite. You have to be prepared for all kinds of things that could come up. Do your homework (like reading through the list below) and swim open water as much as possible so you encounter these different experiences in a NON-RACE environment first.
• If you're not a bi-lateral breather do your best to become one before doing an open water event. There are a number of circumstances where breathing on the opposite side would either be preferable or a must - a glaring sun, an annoying swimmer who's right next to you and won't leave, a current that's bringing big waves on your normal breathing side - just to name a few.
• If you want to be good at open water, you need to practice open water.

• Practice your starts!!!
• Run-in starts: knees high, feet out to side (if you can), dolphin dives
• Floating: Breastroke to get up on plane, then start your freestyle. Use your legs, more than your arms!
• Control your energy level at the start:
• Decide on YOUR strategy:
• Where in the pack do you want to be (front, middle, back // to the right or to the left)
• How hard do you need to start out? (depends on your position in the pack and your strategy)
• If you want to be in the lead, then start out sprinting and settle in (this needs also to be practiced so your body is used to it!)
• If you're prone to anxiety, stay to the back, start out relaxed and pick up your pace after you're comfortable.
• If you're a mid-packer and generally comfortable, you should to start out a bit faster than pace, to get into a good swimming position (usually takes 100-300 yards for everyone to sort out).
• Race YOUR race.
• Be mindful of the start energy, which may draw you out too hard and expend all your energy stores. Even before you line up, be aware of the energy around you and that you aren't letting yourself get too amped up.
• If you are super anxious, find a quiet spot, sit down, do some deep breathing or meditation. A little energy up before the start is ok, but too much can be very detrimental. Practice races will help you find the right level and pre-race strategies for you.
• Practice your finishes
• Do not stand up until you have to….this depends on your flexibility. Make use of dolphin dives or just swim until your hand touches the bottom. (Just make sure you can get your feet under you, so don't go too far in.)
• If you can during warm-up or pre-race swims, practice the exit. Know what to sight on as you approach, know what the water depths are and where you need/want to stand up.
• As you're coming to the finish of the swim, pick up your kick to get a bit more blood to your legs (but don't overkick it and drive your heart rate up!)
• Control your energy level here too. Many times, the crowd will be cheering, the energy level will be high. Use it to energize yourself, but don't let it amp you up to an uncontrolled level!

• Be prepared for any race to swim it on your own, and use drafting opportunities as just that, an opportunity. Don't count on being able to draft, unless you arrange with a partner to swim and draft the whole race together.
• Work on getting into a side-draft position (see picture):
• First, this is a lower turbulence area & allows you to do your own sighting. Secondly, it tends to be way less annoying to others than if you're on their feet. Finally, it sets you up already in position for a pass when you need to.
• The drawback to the side draft: you may get pinched off by another swimmer when the lead swimmer passes them. In this case, drop back to a foot draft, pass the swimmer or obstacle, and then get back into a side draft.
• If you don't know the lead swimmer that you're drafting, double check a few times early on that they are sighting correctly and on course. If they aren't, get out of the draft!
• If you arrange a partner to swim with, agree ahead of time when you will switch the lead! (Eg. Every 500 strokes, or at the turn buoys or wherever.) Then, practice that communication (eg. A series of foot taps from the drafting swimmer) and the position changes. Don't lose time in the water because you have to stop to talk all the time.

• Buoys are NOT always in straight lines, so swimming buoy-to-buoy may not be the shortest route.
• Make sure you know the race rules:
• Do you only have to make the turns? (If yes, that means that you can go to either side of the other, straight-line buoys.)
• Which side do you need to keep the buoys on?
• How many buoys are there? Where are the turns? Do different color buoys mean something different?
• Swimmers tend to bunch up at the turn buoys, especially if the turn is sharp (eg. 90degrees or more). This congestion can really slow you down and puts you in a situation where you are more likely to get kicked or cut off. Going wide is longer, but allows you to keep your pace, avoid the congestion and get a good sighting on the next direction you need to go.
• Practice different turns during training (corkscrew turn, breastroke turn, tarzan swimming, 1-arm stroking) and figure out what works well for you in different situations.
• If a 2 or more loop course, do you have to exit the water? Make a strategy for how you are going to come out and re-enter (where, how deep, how aggressive, etc…).

• Get out and practice in open water and get used to it!
• Train in similar water to what you will be competing. If an inland lake, swim a lot of inland lakes. If big lakes or the ocean, find a big lake with 2-3 foot waves and practice swimming in the waves!
• See above about controlling your energy level at the start. If you're prone to anxiety, you really need to separate from the crowd for a bit and do some meditation. Get your heart rate down before you even line up.
• If you are prone to anxiety or panic attacks….
• Realize that the panic attack takes 20-30minutes sometimes to get through. You can't force it to go away. But, the more you expose yourself to the anxiety situations, the better you will handle it the next time.
• Start at the back of the pack and stay out of the start chaos.
• Control your energy level, see above comments.
• Figure out methods in the water to help yourself calm down. Examples:
• Turn over on your back, look at the clouds and take deep breaths
• Focus on your stroke, count your strokes, work on some technique point that you struggle with (like your catch!), do your favorite drill
• Sing a song to yourself
• Develop a soothing mantra that you can say to yourself
• Switch to breast stroke or side stroke for a few minutes.
• Make use of the buoys or kayakers…. You're usually allowed to hold on as long as you don't make forward progress (but check race rules!!!) If you swim to a kayak, be very clear to the kayaker what your problem is and what you need them to do (even if it's as simple as just stay there and talk to you!).
• Make sure you're still sighting and staying on course. Don't cause yourself additional anxiety because of something like going the wrong way.

• Practice sighting in the pool, so that you learn to keep your stroke rate, proper positioning, and changing strokes (all the things we've been doing in practice!)
• Check out the course ahead of time if you can.
• Pick out BIG, stationary things on shore that you can use to sight for each leg of the swim. Sometimes you can't see the buoys well, so try to sight on something on land, BEHIND the buoy and HIGH up.
• Keep in mind that as you swim towards something, it will change! It will look different.
• You should only need to sight every 25 yards or so. Count your strokes in the pool for 1 length and use that as a guideline for how often to sight.
• To practice sighting, don't just always swim the same route around your training lake. Pick something across the lake or diagonal, and swim towards that. Change directions and get used to having sun or waves from different directions.
• Other things to sight on:
• Sunny days and early mornings: Sometimes you can see the rays of light through the water. Keep them at the right angle and you don't have to pick your head up so much.
• If swimming parallel to the shore, breathe towards the shore side and keep a constant distance.
• If you're at the back of the pack, keep an eye out for where others are going (if they are keeping well to the course).
• Also check how the buoy's are set and your best way around the course.
• Make sure you know the # of buoys, if the turn buoys are their own color, where the turns are, etc….
• Final note: if you wander a lot, you need to work on your stroke, especially your catch phase & that you are pulling & rotating equally on both sides. These are the most common reasons swimmers don't swim straight.

• If waves are coming from the side:
• Time your breathing to the waves, and breathe away from the wave direction
• Time your sighting to the waves and sight when you're on the crest.
• Waves coming from the front:
• Time your breathing and sighting to when you're on the crest of the wave.
• Make sure you keep front hand high and glide through the waves. You may also need to increase your pulling force & your kick to get through them.
• Current:
• Make sure you know the current direction. If it's from the side, you will need to swim slightly angled into it to keep course. You may also need to sight more often.
• If swimming into the current, be patient. Make sure you keep a good hydrodynamic position, up on plane, and front hand high so you can glide through.
• To get out through breakers (eg. Ocean swim starts):
• Again, keep your hand high in front of you. As the breakers break over you, go to Sweet spot position (face down), glide and kick like hell. Between breakers: head up sighting/Tarzan, get your breath, pull HARD and keep kicking. Time the next breaker to duck back down into Sweet Spot through it.
• This takes a lot of energy and patience! But anyone can get through if you do it right.

• Don't get into a jabbing fight. That wastes energy.
• If you get boxed in & don't want to be there, stay calm, sight a bit more, and find a way out of the middle. This may mean that you need to slow your pace & let others move around you, then sweep back behind them to an open spot.
• Practice swimming in a pack and bumping each other.
• If you're being bumped, pull with a wider stroke and keep that front hand up in front of you as a blocking mechanism.
• To swim through two swimmers, keep your stroke long, front hand up, and make sure you're making use of the body rotation. Get your elbows high (like zipper drill) to make yourself narrower. Kick a bit harder and just push through.
• Extra lubrication (vaseline or body glide) on exposed skin surfaces can sometimes help prevent being grabbed or rubbed.

• Double capping helps keep the head warmer.
• To acclimate for the race, walk in ankle/knee deep, bend over and submerge just your head a few times. Do this before submerging your body. Then, submerge your body and swim a bit to warm up. Go fully into and fully out of the water 2-3 times.
• Other gear like neoprene caps, gloves, and booties can help for super cold water.
• If you know you will have a cold water swim, expose yourself to cold temperatures in your training as much as possible. (Worst case, sit in ice baths for 30-45minutes.)

• Goggles:
• Choose your lens color carefully.
• I personally like orange, as it will help with glare but also brighten the sight for you. I use orange for all conditions.
• Clear lenses: for cloudy days
• Dark lenses: for cloudless days
• Inspect your lens seals and straps before racing! Make sure they won't leak or tear or break.
• Wear the goggle strap under your cap to avoid issues with them coming off during the race.
• Some racers like bigger goggles with bigger seal areas (vs pool racing goggles), to spread out any force from getting bumped. Just make sure that you aren't sacrificing sealing to get a bigger lens/seal area.
• If you have goggle problems, flip over to your back, kick and adjust them.
• Cap:
• If cold, wear two caps (doubled) with the goggle strap between the two caps.
• Wetsuit:
• Get a good fit! Make sure that it fits in the torso area. It should feel tight (esp when new). It will loosen with time and also when it gets wet.
• For the first use of the season, make sure you soak it in the bathtub for a few hours! They tend to dry over time and shrink up. It will also help with tearing.
• Put the wetsuit on DRY! Make sure it is dry and your skin is dry.
• Use body glide or other lube, especially at the neck, wrists and lower legs.
• Pay attention in training to red spots or "hot spots" created by the wetsuit. Check yourself when you take your wetsuit off (i.e. don't just yank it off and miss the opportunity to know you have a chafe ready to happen on race day!). Make sure you lube those spots before the race.
• To put on: start with it inside out, pull it up to your knees, then roll it the rest of the way up and on. Make sure it's well into your crotch area before rolling it up onto your torso. If that isn't in the right spot, you won't get it on right.
• Wear it and get used to it. First time, just wear it and walk around. Also practice swimming in it. You may have to adjust your stroke a bit or you may find that you start some bad habits, so go practice in it and work on your technique. (Note: you can wear it once or twice in a pool to try it, but the chlorine will break down the rubber. Rinse it and soak it in clear water after being in a pool!)
• Rinse your wetsuit off and hang it to dry (inside out) after each use.
• Lubrication:
• Find a brand you like, try out a few different ones. Vaseline won't work for things like suit chafing, but is sometimes good for exposed skin area.
• Use it during training sessions and figure out where you are most likely to need it.

• First off, do not panic! You will just cramp more.
• If you can keep swimming, quit kicking with that leg and flex your foot (toes up towards your knee).
• There is a cross-legged technique that takes practice but sometimes also works. Ask an experienced swimmer who knows how to do this.
• If that doesn't work, stop, tread water/lay on your back and work on stretching it out or massaging it.
• If there is a kayaker close by, you may be able to rest holding the kayak and work it out.
• Worst case, swim without kicking until you can get out of the water.
• In any case, if you're cramping, you need patience to give it a chance to resolve!
• Do what you can during your training to prevent cramps. There is no one magical solution for everyone, but hydration, electrolytes, and stretching are usually recommended.
• If you're really prone to cramps, be careful on a run-in start….don't push off the bottom too hard, which could set off cramps.







MAC - Masters Swim Team

Designed for any swimming ability level from beginners to advanced swimmers. Meet and swim with a group of adult swimmers - at Milford High School. • Learn correct stoke techniques • Increase the efficiency of your strokes • Develop more endurance • Find camaradarie and fun in the pool

At each practice, lanes will be designated for beginners through advanced. A workout will be posted for each lane. All lanes will begin swimming sets together, although the set will vary depending on ability level. ALL practices are coached by certified coaches. Brick workouts will be available for triathletes or others interested in cross training. Facility membership will include access to indoor track, weight rooms, treadmills and spin classes. Coaches will provide online resources, professional videos demonstrating stoke techniques, articles detailing nutrition, stroke and fitness training methods. In addition your stroke will be videotaped and evaluated.

You can register at the Front Desk.


SWIM NOTES: Team Communication (Shutterfly - MAC Swimmers):

Talk to Coach Diane, Kris or Maria, and they will invite you via e-mail invitation. Click on the link in the invitation and follow the steps to create a Shutterfly account.

You can then use the team's page for information, you can do two things:
- Sign into your account on the computer, click on 'SHARE' and then the MAC logo that pops up. You can explore and see
what we've got on there. (Calendar, Photos, Documents, etc.)
- Put the App on your Smartphone for mobile access to our calendar, roster, etc

If you need help please let Kris know at the pool.


TIPS for Touching The Walls:

FLY: requires a 2 hand touch at same time. If going for more fly then push off on stomach / side, if switching to back push off on back side. You MAY dolphin kick on either push off before starting stroke.
BACK: MUST touch and push on your back when going from back to more back, you may dolphin or flutter kick before starting the stroke. When going from back to breast touch on your back and push off on stomach / side. On the push of to breast you may NOT dolfin or flutter kick, you get ONE under water pull and ONE underwater kick and then MUST start stroke on the surface, we will practice this
BREAST: When touching in breast MUST touch with 2 hands at the SAME time and push off on stomach / side. On the push of to breast you may NOT dolfin or flutter kick, you get ONE under water pull and ONE underwater kick and then MUST start stroke on the surface, we will practice this. If you are switching to free you may dolfin or flutter kick before starting the free stroke.
FREE: When touching in free 1 hand with fingertips and turned shoulder is most effecient, if flipping turn for more free no hand touch necessary. Push off on stomach / side and you may dolfin or flutter kick underwater before starting the stroke.

Good Swim and Lane Etiquette:

YES, the lanes are crowded but so is a tri so practice good lane etiquette...

• Move over to the side when stopping at the wall so others can finish at the wall
• Do NOT start and stop in front of the wall blocking others trying to touch the wall
• Do NOT push off and start when a swimmer is coming in for a turn
• Allow a faster swimmer to pass by either moving over next to the lane line or waiting at the wall
• If you want to pass ONLY tap foot of front swimmer once or twice
• Organize lane by fastest at that stroke which may not be the same for free as back or br
• Do NOT continually chg lane leader in the middle of set, that cheats all but the leader of earned rest
• Do NOT push off and start right after the swimmer in front of you, give em some space
• Leave on correct intervals do NOT wait so YOU can leave on the 30 or 60
• Compromise on interval so entire lane can stay together and do the workout together
• Help rookies in your lane...I am one coach and try to explain sets to all but sometimes it just doesn't happen. I will make every effort to get to every lane multiple times during a practice and I am disappointed when it doesn't happen. Give a shout out and be patient or swim an easy 100 while waiting

If you arrive late at practice, FIRST I am proud you made the effort to come, I know its not easy and every minute in the pool counts! Second, please get in your typical lane and join the warm up in progress...most warm ups are scheduled to take btw 15-30m and have many different features. If the lane is kicking its okay to get in and swim a 200 or so around those kicking. Warm ups do not have to synchronized like the sets during practice. You just need to be courteous to those already in the lane ie: don't push off in front of folks coming in for a turn, don't stand and visit in front of the wall, don't stop folks and ask them to explain what they are doing...get going and join the flow. IF you come in and warm up is done, no prob...I will add you to a lane and have you go last till you are warmed up and you will follow the format of the set the lane is doing. I will always scan and adjust lanes to reduce crowding and get lanes ability levels synchronized as possible before starting the main sets. Realize we have a VERY diverse group and all may not be the same speed but we can work together.

Please try and follow the sets format. The workout is written for a reason...certain goals in speed, heart rate, aerobics capacity, rest, drill / stroke goals, etc. I know they can be confusing, just ask...its my job to help you understand. Many times I do NOT write the details because I want you to stop and ask. No interval on the board for a set means there is a 10 second rest interval. After each set your lane should regroup, it keeps the lane flowing. IF you are obviously out of place in the lane too slow or fast let me know, we can move you after a set or I may have a reason for leaving you there. Be patient and we will all get more effecient and faster together...state meet is how many mo's away?!

Do not stand in the middle of the wall, always come in to the right side of the lane and allow other swimmers to finish and turn on the wall.

If you get out for a goggle chg, bathroom break, cigar, etc wait for the lane to finish the repeat and then join the end of the line. Don't run over folks that are tired and have been swimming while you were in the hot tub oops meant bathroom. Pace behind them and get back into the flow. No one like to have a swimmer riding their feet


BREAK THE CODE: Swim Workout Abbreviations

k = kick
dr = drill
sw = swim
sk = skull
RI = rest interval
p = pace if written to right and pull if written to left with paddles
fr = free
bk = back
br = breast unless written with numbers after then breathing pattern ie br 3,5
fl = fly
IM = individual medley
F! = butt cracking fast
DQ = darn quick / strong, not ALL out
T = get your time
f = fins if written to the left
w-d = warm down
str = stroke other than free
ch = choice any of the 4 strokes
S = snorkel if written to the left
v-kick = vertical kick
kick and go = kick on wall then swim
tombstone k = kickboard up right in front of you not flat on water
x-leg = xlegs and pull with arms
ez = easy recovery swim

small numbers written to the left of each line are the yardage in 100's ie 22= 2200 yards. 1650 yards equals a mile



Xleg                                 force body rotation
OK, LongHorn, Fist             feel pull from forearm and enhance feel on palm
Deadman                          isolate and work underwater pull
Zipper                               elbows up and forearms against the water
Scooter                              rotation and timing of pull
Tennis Balls                        catch and pull of stroke keeping pressure on ball
Poles                                 elbows up and correct underbody crossover
K-Up                                   catch and timing of stroke
12/1…3/3                              timing of stroke and initiating kick to hip roll
Lane Pull                               high elbow and front quadrant swimming
Partner Drag                       hip rotation to create strong pull
Wall Tap                                finish with heel of hand
Run                                         practice front quadrant pull in vertical plane
Mid Quad                              maintain high elbow as transition pull to push
Cups                                       maintain high elbow and forearm pull thru out pull
Big / Lil Kick                          stretch hip flexor, use hip and glute to kick
Vertical kick                         small kick keeps shoulders up
Kick board war                    small kick has power
1 arm pull breathe opposite side            rotation
3/3/3                                      focus on equal rotation and pull
Bilateral breathe                rotation
Paddles HOLD                      equal pressure thru out entire pull
Paddles FOREARM             use forearm as pull fulcrum
Salute                               high elbow, entry and catch
Head tap                            entry postion
Flutter kick one leg up       stability and glute kick
Shark tail                         elbow up for recovery
Sweet Spot                           correct body position on side not stomach
Front skull                             use upper back thru hands to create power at catch
Fulcrum paddles                  wrist steady to hold water from palm
Skank Walk                           high elbow thru out
Corkscrew                             use hip for rotation not head lift and roll
Feet first free                       find water, feel push
OK-overkick                          generate momentum from kick and set tempo
Partner swim with board  correct cross over


12/1….3/3                            timing of stroke and entry with kick, rotation
30, 60, 90                             timing of stroke and entry with kick and rotation
Chix Wings                            mid pull with elbow down and forearm pushing
Clock                                      timing of stroke with kick and stability
Lane Pull                               entry point of stroke and catch to push
Big / Lil Kick                          stretch hip flexor, kick from glutes
Heel Wall taps                     kick from glutes
K Up                                       timing and stability
Feet first back skull generate power using hands and wrist
Tennis balls                           maintain power thru out pull
Cups                                       maintain hand position and pressure on water


Opposite arm and leg        timing of pull and kick
Fast hands                            catch and recovery to thrust body undulation fwd
Elbow Squeeze                    lift of stroke to create undulation
Breast arm / free kick        turnover of stroke
Breast arms / fly kick         undulation to drive glide forward
Xleg                                        force undulation to move fwd
Porpoise                                undulation from hip not head
Knee bands                           kick from feet and knees
Wall Push ups                       use upper back for pull
Windshield wiper skull       use forearms to generate pull with high elbow
Rockets                                 explosion of kick with streamline glide


Rockhopper                          underwater pull
1 arm breathe side             timing of stroke with kick
1 arm breathe front           timing of stroke and breathe with kick
1 arm free / fly kick            learn pull associated with free
Fly arms / br kick                 get undulation to allow for breath
Alt fly kick and br kick        keep hips up with pull
Skull                                        create power in conjunction with hips to breathe
BIG / Lil                                 use core not head fast and snappy ontop water
Flockets                                 timing of kick with mid stroke thrust
FINS                                        no kick increase surface area so feel push for hips
Porpoise                                undulation of body
Lane line over under          undulation
Butt thrust on wall             use core to generate movement not head
Fast fly arms                         turnover and no drive down

Any stroke can be swam with…isolate component of stroke
Tennis balls
Vertical kick



Back to Top

TRI news



Post written by Susan Lacke.

Like most new triathletes — especially those who started out as runners — I had a lot of really strange questions when I first decided to take on a triathlon.

Though I was comfortable as a runner, learning how to add a swim and bike turned me into an inquisitive pain in the ass around my triathlete friends:

“Why do you wear those pointy helmets? Can I wear arm floaties on the swim? Where did all the men’s body hair go?”

One of the questions I had was particularly puzzling:

How the heck does anyone eat at these things?

I know I’m not alone in that bewilderment. As I’ve worked on the upcoming No Meat Athlete Triathlon Roadmap, I’ve encountered a lot of people who once felt the same way. For many runners-turned-triathletes, their fueling routine for running was nailed down, but triathlon was weird.

In a marathon, I knew to fuel early and often, taking in carbohydrates nearly from the start of the race. So in a triathlon, did that mean I was supposed to start eating during the swim?

What? How? Didn’t Grandma say something about waiting an hour?

With time, of course, I began to learn that fueling for a triathlon isn’t so confusing after all. It just takes a few rules of thumb and a lot of experimentation.

In triathlon, nutrition and hydration are so important, they’re often referred to as the “fourth discipline” of the sport. But no matter what distance you’re racing, whether it’s your first sprint or a full-on Ironman distance, the key elements of fueling for your triathlon are the same.

Here’s a look at 12 basic guidelines that apply to triathlons of most any distance:


1. The morning of your race, take in between 200 and 500 calories.

It’s a wide range of caloric intake, and your pre-race breakfast should be based on your own preferences. Also consider how much time you have before the race – if you’re eating three hours before the starting gun, that will give you more time to digest a bigger breakfast.

2. Get a good mix of carbohydrate, protein, and healthy fats.

As Matt points out in the 5 Essentials of Pre-Workout Nutrition, 3 grams of carbohydrate to 1 gram of protein is typically said to be the perfect ratio, with a splash of healthy fats for good measure. Some typical race-morning breakfasts:

A smoothie with protein powder
Bread, English muffins or toaster waffles with peanut butter
Cereal with almond milk
Fruit and yogurt
A banana with almond butter
There are also a lot of atypical race-morning breakfasts: cold pizza, ice cream, and soup are some race-morning breakfasts I’ve seen fellow triathletes consume. It’s up to you to decide what works. Some people do well with fiber, while others experience gastrointestinal issues with it. Some like a big breakfast, while others would rather just eat a gel or nutrition bar. Again, experiment during your training to find your perfect race-morning nosh.

3. Caffeinate (maybe).

If you’ve had coffee, tea, or another caffeinated beverage on training days with no ill effects, then go ahead and drink it on race morning. Some people drink it for the caffeine jolt, while others pick it up because it makes things – ahem – move before you start moving. If you’ve ever visited a port-o-john before a race, you know what I’m talking about. (Wink. Nod. Air-gun.) You don’t specifically need coffee for that – a mug of hot water will do the trick, too.

Race morning is not the time to suddenly start a coffee habit! Some people resemble a rabid labrador on crack cocaine after a cuppa Joe. This sounds like it’d be perfect for getting some free speed in a race, but in actuality, it just makes for anxiety, difficulty focusing, or nausea – not at all what you want on your big day.

4. Drink water.

Guzzling gallons of water on race morning will not really do anything for you except make you have to pee. Instead, drink lots of water throughout the days before the race, and drink some on race morning to “top off the tank.”

During The Race

5. Fuel the machine.

Your main objective during the race is to stay on top of nutrition and hydration. In shorter races, this is easy to achieve, since the body’s natural stores of glycogen will often suffice. Longer races, however, require strategic planning.

Your body’s stock of carbohydrates will keep energy levels up while you’re racing. No matter what distance you’re racing, take 100 to 200 calories of easily-digested carbohydrate (gels are perfect for this, as are dates) with a healthy gulp of water 15 minutes before the race. This will give your body an extra boost to draw from during the swim.

That’s right — the answer to “How do you eat during the swim?” is … You don’t. In terms of time, the swim is usually the shortest leg of a triathlon, so by eating a good breakfast followed by a small amount of calories immediately before getting in the water, you can tide yourself over until you get into transition and hop on the bike. Don’t worry about bonking during the swim — if you’ve done a good job of fueling in the days and hours before your race, your body’s natural reserves will suffice plenty for this short time frame.

And that old wives’ tale about waiting an hour after you eat before you swim? It’s exactly that – an old wives’ tale. Take in a gel and get in the water already!

On the bike and run, fuel wisely. For races lasting more than an hour, typical recommendations are to take in 120 to 240 calories with 30 to 60 grams of carbohydrate per hour. In long-course races, such as a half or full iron distance, you may want to consider taking in more calories (if your stomach can handle it).

6. Consume mostly liquids.

Liquids are the ideal way to get your nutrition during a triathlon – not only will liquid hydrate you, but many sport drinks contain calories, carbohydrates, and electrolytes in a format that’s easiest for your stomach to process.

7. Take in electrolytes.

Most people think electrolytes and sodium are interchangeable. But electrolytes are actually several different salts – sodium, chloride, potassium, magnesium, calcium, phosphate, and bicarbonate, to be exact. These elements keep your body running by balancing hydration, nerve impulses, and muscle function.

The amount of electrolytes you need to take in during a race will depend on a lot of factors: how much you sweat, how hard you’re racing, and how hot/windy/dry it is outside. Most sports drinks will fulfill this need, though some people choose to drink water and take their electrolytes in capsule form.

8. Choose a drinking routine.

Some people take in a certain amount of fluid at scheduled intervals — say, 4 ounces every 10 minutes, or 6 ounces every 20 minutes. Some make it a point to empty one bottle of fluid over the course of an hour. Others simply drink to thirst. Find what works for you.

9. If you must eat “food,” make it easy to digest.

Eating while cycling or running is taxing on the body. Whether propelling you forward or digesting your food, muscles need resources — energy, water, and blood — to work. Doing both simultaneously requires those resources to be diluted throughout your system instead of concentrated on one function (moving or eating). To avoid having your moving resources diverted to your stomach, choose easy-to-digest foods like store-bought or homemade gels, chews, soft candies (I’ve been known to carry Swedish Fish in my bike jersey!), or dates. For shorter races, you won’t need a lot of food – just a small baggie should do.

For longer efforts requiring more calories (like a half or full iron distance triathlon) you may want to eat something more substantial, like pretzels, energy bars, or a peanut butter & jelly sandwich. Always eat these on the bike — it is much easier to digest than while running — and don’t eat it all at once (see above: diverting resources). Instead, spread out your bites over time, and always take in a good drink of water with each bite of your solid food.

10. Caffeinate, maybe (yes, this again!).

There are gels and sports drinks which contain caffeine. Some triathlons also offer Coca-Cola on the run course. Some people utilize this bonus ingredient – cola has brought back more than one triathlete from the deep, dark recesses of a bonk – but others have found it causes stomach upset. During your training, try caffeine to see how your body reacts to it.


11. Eat soon, drink often.

There’s a fuel window in the 15-60 minutes following a race where you want to take in your recovery meal to optimize muscle repair. Matt discusses this window (and six other important tips) in The 7 Secrets of Post-Workout Recovery.

12. Treat yourself.

After eating an appropriate recovery meal, it’s perfectly acceptable to use that day’s race as an excuse to eat whatever the hell you want that night. I’m a fan of the Mexican-food-and-cupcake dinner myself. Treat yourself – you’ve earned it!




running news


The Following information is for beginning runners. (Galloway's Book on Running)
We have all heard horror stories about the pain and agony of the first week of running. In fact, this is probably why so many people give it up soon after they start, or say they are bored, or go on about how they hate running. They never get past that painful stage. Starting any new activity takes courage and strength. To cross from the known to the unknown requires a leap of faith. Newton's law applies: a body at rest tends to stay at rest. Once you overcome the inertia and
get past the painful stage, the reverse law applies: a body in motion tends to stay in motion. If you start slowly, gradually increase the exertion through a series of small steps, and rest adequately throughout, you can improve your condition steadily with little risk of soreness or injury.

Monitor your pulse rate. The key to strengthening your heart is keeping your pulse rate high enough, but not too high. Research by Dr. Kenneth Cooper at eth Aerobics Research Institute and by others has shown the threshold level to be 70 - 80% of your Maximum heart rate. This isn't necessary in the beginning; but after you've established a program, maintaining this heart rate for 30 min, three times a week will strengthen your lungs and heart, improve circulation of the blood and oxygen and tone up you muscles. (Galloway's Book on Running)
Two methods of Calculating Maximum Heart Rate
1 Have a maximum oxygen uptake test performed.
This is done on a treadmill and is very strenuous, but gives you the
most accurate measure of the maximum.
2. Subtract your age from 220
220 - 43 years old
177 Max. Heart Rate
Then take 70 - 80% of that as your target zone
177 x 70% = 124 Threshold rate.
Most runs should show a heart rate of 70% or slightly higher. On speed days the heart rate will go up to 80% and even

Running on the indoor track:

5 minute warmup at your own pace
Lunge the long straightaways, jog the curves for 1 lap - This is NOT fast, take your time and do it correctly. Knees should not come past your ankles.
Run at 75-80% effort 4 1/2 laps (equal to 1/2 mile) This should be quick. You should be breathing hard and not able to carry on a conversation.
(Beginners run 2 laps at 75% effort)
Jog 2 1/2 laps for recovery
(Beginners jog 1 lap)
Repeat the lunge, jog, lunge, jog for one lap. Follow with the 4 1/2 laps or 2 laps at 75-80% and appropriate jogging recovery laps.
Do 5 repeats all together.
(Beginners can do 4.)
Hold a plank for 2:00.
Left side plank for 1:00.
Right side plank for 1:00.
Stretch, hydrate and have some protein


Article 1 Warming Up

Whatever the sport, or exercise program, the first movements should begin with a warm-up. Start with light activity to loosen up muscles before vigorous activity. Warming up not only loosens muscle, but starts blood flowing to muscle. Your body should begin to feel more relaxed and alive (ready to take on a higher tempo).

According to many sports experts, a warm-up should last at least 10 minutes. A warm-up should begin to make you sweat, but not tire you out. For those beginning to run, this could mean a brisk walk, or a ride on a stationary bike to warm up leg muscles. Although running is a great deal of leg work, the upper body plays an important role in efficient running too. Don't ignore the upper body during a warm up. Light push ups or sit ups can be a good warm-up. Stretching is a huge part of the warm-up for runners. Hold stretches (see attachment) for 30-40 second each. As you get in better shape and start feeling good about your runs, it is tempting to skip a warm-up. Sometimes the mentality is to think you don't need a warm up because your body is used to running, and you feel confident in your ability. This can be a big mistake. When you do a warm-up, the muscle becomes saturated with blood. This will increase the elasticity. A good warm-up and blood saturation prepares muscles, tendons and ligaments to take a more intense level of strain.

In addition, muscle warm-up and flexing the joints improves the strength and speed of muscle contractions. This allows them to perform at their full range of motion more efficiently and without injury. A good warm-up also helps you to conserve energy. I used to spend little time with warm up prior to a race because I did not want to wear myself down. On the contrary, a good warm-up allows you to exercise longer because it will take less energy to produce the necessary movements. Your blood becomes thinner and flows more easily. When this happens, you get nutrients to the muscles more quickly. In turn, the removal of waste products, such as lactic acid, is quicker. Lactic acid can cause cramping.

Sources of information:

Gary Null, Ph.D.


Is Cooling Down Important? You bet!

Depending on who you talk to, some experts suggest that a cool down is even more important than a warm up. I would, however, never suggest skipping a warm-up. Once again, warm-ups are a key to injury prevention, but a cool down is just as valuable to maintain healthy, injury free workouts. Some may not buckle up in the car because the airbag is there, but both restraints make your vehicle safer. Just like a primary and secondary restraint system, warm-up and cool down keep you safer (less prone to injury) and keep you running longer (or swimming, or biking, etc.).

Here are a few reasons why a cool down is essential:

1. Have you ever felt weak in the knees, crampy, or sore with muscle pain? This is frequently due to lactic acid. Even if you feel good at the time of exercise, your body has still not gotten rid of waste products produced by a workout. One of the reasons you feel sore after vigorous workout is due to the lactic acid that is still in your muscles. Cooling down will help the body flush the toxins. When exercise is stopped, waste products stay in the muscles. This often causes swelling and pain (often called blood pooling). Cooling down helps return blood to the heart and relieves muscles of lactic acid. Keeping blood circulating through the muscles at an adequate rate carries oxygen and the nutrients that are required for repair and growth.

2. For runners, a cool-down prevents blood from pooling in the legs. As a runner (in particular on hard running days - races, speed work, hill work, tempo runs, etc.) you have not only blood pooling in the legs, but also adrenaline that is flowing throughout the body. This affects the heart. Sometimes this can be fatal (2009 Detroit Marathon?). So how do you combat that? Simply walking around a bit, or a very slow pace jog will work. Keep moving for about 10 minutes.

3. Speaking of the heart, a cool-down allows the heart to return to its normal rate gradually. It can be very dangerous to suddenly stop a workout without allowing the heart to have its cool-down. According to experts, deaths in runners are rare, but a great deal of them are due to cardiac arrest. This is often caused by stopping a workout without performing cool-down. According to the Aerobics & Fitness Association of America, cardiac problems most often occur not during exercise, but after it's over.

******Of course, you should always refer to your doctor before beginning any workout routine.******

The following are ideas and links to websites for proper cool-down.

Three elements for cooling down

An effective process for cooling down needs to include three major parts to guarantee a complete restoration of the circulation system. These are gentle exercise, stretching and re-fuel. All of these three elements are equally important and none of them should be ignored or treated as unnecessary. They work jointly to repair and replenish the body after exercise. Dizziness, nausea and a 'worn out' feeling are usual symptoms of an inappropriate cool down process. For an effective cool-down, carry out a low intensity exercise for a minimum of 5 to 10 minutes and follow this with a stretching routine. Also you can either carry on with the current exercise while gradually slowing its intensity, or jog or walk briskly for a few minutes, making sure that these activities are lesser in intensity as compared to the exercise previously performed. During the cooling down process, after the heart rate has been lowered, stretch all major muscles, particularly the ones that have just been worked on. Every stretch ought to last for at least eight seconds, with longer stretches and repeats for those muscles that feel particularly sore. The last part of the cooling down after exercise process involves the re-fuel, just as proper nutrition is needed before exercise to provide the fuel needed for activity, the body requires nourishment for the after exercise process of building muscles so water, minerals and carbohydrates are all needed.

Good site on cool-down:

I had not thought about it, but was reminded by a fellow runner: "practice of massage as a post workout recovery plan too. Some of the best racers I know swear by it and make it a point to have a deep tissue massage at least once a month. They view this practice as one would liken it to having the oil changed in your cars engine on its normal maintenance schedule."

Comments from Ray J. (Mac Runner)



10 Tips for Avoiding Shin Splints, Runner's Knee, and Other Common Injuries

No one likes to face injury, but runners especially seem prone to injuries. And it's no wonder since a runner's feet strike the ground anywhere from 800 to 2,000 times a mile, at a force of about three to five times his body weight. I have been fortunate in that I've remained relatively injury free, but I have had experience with injury: an ankle sprain, knee discomfort, hip pain, and fatigue from overtraining. Other than the sprain, most of my injuries were minor. A couple days of rest, chiropractic care, and stretching helped me recover from my aches.

However, I know many other runners and nonrunners who constantly face injury and pain. While many listen to their body and back off, others ignore the pain and keep pushing to a higher level--a new personal record or goal. While some injuries are unavoidable, others are preventable.

The most common injuries runners face are shin splints, runner's knee, plantar fascitis, and inflammation of the iliotibial band (known as Iliotibial band syndrome or ITBS). Shin splints occur as pain or soreness in the shin region. They can sometimes lead to stress fractures. Runner's knee is an aching soreness around or under the knee. An inflammation of the connective tissue along the sole and its attachment to the heel bone is plantar fascitis. ITBS is an inflammation on the outside of the knee joint, which begins as an ache but can progress to a painful burning sensation.

Here are ten tips for avoiding these and other injuries:

1. Invest in good quality running shoes for your foot type. You are setting yourself up for injury if you don't have the right shoes or if you fail to retire your shoes after 300-500 miles. I made the mistake of buying "cheap" running shoes. It didn't take me long to realize I needed better shoes. I went to a specialty running store where I received expert advice. Now, I will never run in anything but quality running shoes. For more information about getting the proper shoe, check out my article If the Shoe Fits.

2. Be careful about increasing your workout or mileage too much too soon. If you're overtraining, you risk injury. (My brother has suffered from shin splints for this reason.) The general rule is that you should not increase your mileage by more than 10% weekly. Also your long run should be no more than 50% greater than your longest run in the week. If your second longest run in the week is 5 miles, then your long run should not exceed 10 miles.

3. If you're a beginning runner, avoid difficult and hard runs. As a general rule, you should wait until you've been running about a year and have built your mileage to about 20 miles weekly before attempting hills and speed training. That doesn't mean you should never run hills. Where I live, I'm surrounded by hills, so when I started running, I had little choice but to run hills, but I have had knee discomfort after increasing my mileage too quickly and running too many hills too fast. Be careful when running hills--especially going downhill--that you maintain control.

4. Take a day or two of rest. I exercise six days a week, but I only run three (sometimes four days a week). By incorporating a day of rest and cross training, you lessen your chance of injury. I cycle and participate in aerobics on my nonrunning days. I love running, but I don't want to risk all those injuries that many runners face. Often, once you suffer injuries, your body is more susceptible to those same injuries. Yes, there are runners who run every day and have no problems, but I don't want to take that chance.

5. Run slower and on softer surfaces. Concrete is the hardest surface and provides little shock absorption. Roads paved with asphalt are better. Cinder tracks are the most resilient. If I have the choice between sidewalks and the streets, I choose the street as long as it's safe. When I run along a four-lane highway I choose the sidewalk. To not run there would be sheer foolishness.

6. Watch the camber on streets. The middle of the road is the best part to run on, but it is also unsafe. Some roads have very steep camber, so avoid running on the edge of those roads. If it's not a busy road, you can run more on the road, or else try running off the road. When running off the road, be careful of holes or loose stones you may slip on, or any other hazardous situations. Don't run with your head down all the time, but be aware of what's underfoot. (I suffered a sprained ankle when I first started running because I slipped on wet grass going downhill and twisted my ankle after falling into a little hole.)

7. Stretch both before and after your workup, but warm up a little before stretching. Walk or jog an easy mile, stretch and then run your course. Don't forget to stretch at the end of your run after you cool down. If you fail to adequately cool down and stretch after a workout, and especially after a race, your muscles will tighten and you will be stiff and sore the next day. To prevent this walk or jog slowly and then stretch. The longer your run or the harder your race, the longer you need to cool down afterwards. I usually plan the last mile or 5-10 minutes as an easy jog and then I walk for a few minutes. After a race, I walk/jog for at least 10-15 minutes.

8. Do strength training exercises for the lower and upper body. Lunges and squats, when executed properly, are great leg strengtheners.

9. Also, watch your running form. Not only does that help to prevent injuries, but it also helps you run more efficiently. To maintain proper posture and efficiency, hold your head high. Relax and avoid tensing your muscles. If your body is aligned properly, your feet will land on a line directly in front of you. Be aware of your arm movements. Keep your arms bent at about 90 degrees. Dangling them or holding them to your chest will cause a loss of power in your stride. They should move forward and backward with the opposite leg, your hands brushing your hips.

10. Listen to your body. While some muscle aches or discomforts are to be expected when you push yourself, pain is not. Pain is your body's way of telling you that something is wrong. If you continue exercising through pain, you risk injury. And if you have an injury, take some time off. You risk more damage and your recovery will take longer if you don't!


The Following Article Was Posted on

How to Train for Your First Half Marathon

By Coach Jenny Hadfield For

If you're reading this article, you probably want to become a half marathoner (or you're leaning into the idea). And if that is the case, you are in the right place. Successfully finishing a half marathon begins a plan to reach the start line safely and ready to rumble.

Start your engines. You've pulled the trigger and decided to try your hand in the half marathon world. Congrats! The next step is to register for an event to build in a little accountability. Give yourself plenty of time to train for the half (12 to 14 weeks). Having a long runway will give you time for illness, vacations and life detours that can happen along the way. It will also allow your body and mind time to adapt to the continual progression in mileage. If you don't currently have a consistent base of mileage (3 to 4 miles, three to four times per week), that is OK. It simply means your runway is a little longer (six months). You can do it in less, but you won't have as much fun along the way and the risks of injuries dramatically increase.

Pick an event, any event. I ran my first half marathon in my county because I could train on the course and I wanted the home court advantage. When you pick the race, it serves as your carrot for the season, so it is in your best interest to find one that inspires. Do you want to run through wine country or in your hometown? Do you want to toe the line with thousands or a few hundred? Since this is your first, it is also wise to find events that support your pace (run, run-walk or walk) and those that offer courses similar to your terrain. There are enough nerves in tackling your first event, let alone having to worry about short cut-off times or super challenging terrain. Keep it simple.

Find a training plan that suits your needs. The body adapts and improves at an efficient rate if you make small changes along the way. The key to going longer, stronger and tapping into your inner endurance athlete is to have the wisdom to start from where you are rather than where you want to be.

The first week of the training plan should closely match that of your current training plan (or slightly more, maybe 10 percent). If you jump into a program that requires a large jump in mileage, frequency or intensity, you will be on a fast track to burn out, aches and pains and possibly drop out. Think of this like education. Take it one grade at a time. Your body will pay you back in dividends by recovering from the workouts so you can progress along the way. Less is more when you're first getting started. Hold back the reigns of excitement and take it one step at a time.

Make it social. Research suggests training in groups not only inspires better performance, but the ability to run longer more easily. This is especially important for the weekly long training runs. The miles fly by as you talk about the movie you saw, work, the kids or solving world peace. There are a lot of fantastic training groups at local running stores, charity groups and gyms. Or it can be as simple as you and your best friend.

Practice patience, grasshopper. Rome wasn't built in a day and you won't turn into a half marathoner over night. Expect to roll through good and not-so-good training days. At the end of the season, it all comes down to the consistency overall, not the handful of workouts that felt so hard you wanted to cry.

Listen to your body and go with the flow of your life. Our body has an excellent communication system that would kick Twitter's butt. Listen as you train for aches and pains that don't subside in a day or two. In most cases, the pain will subside with a little tender, loving care. If the aches stick around longer, its time to dial down the program for a few days and cross-train with activities that don't aggravate the aches and rest. A few days of active or complete rest can be the answer to most training aches. It all starts with listening…

Use your gears. The greatest difference between running for fitness and for a long distance event is that the former is horizontal and the latter continually builds throughout the season. The progression requires training at the scheduled effort level (intensity) to allow efficient recovery. If you run the long run too hard, it delays the recovery process and can have an effect on the performance of your next workout. The number one mistake I see most newbie half marathoners make is in running all the workouts at the same pace (their normal running pace). Find your gears (effort levels – easy, moderate, hard) and practice discipline as you train. You'll know you're on target if you are able to run longer or faster and you'll know if you're pushing too hard if those times and paces decline.

Learn, grow and evolve. There is a wonderful running community from which you can learn many helpful tips along the way. Join in the conversation on the forums and read the informative articles. Stop by my AskCoachJenny Facebook page and ask a question or learn from others. Getting connected is a great way to maintain momentum and motivation along the way.

Think outside the box. It's easy to get caught up on the miles when training for a half marathon but there are a lot of other ingredients that play a vital role in your preparation. Strength training as little as 15 to 20 minutes twice per week builds a solid foundation that will improve muscle balance, running efficiency, and help you maintain optimal form for the duration. Weaving in 5 to 10 minutes of flexibility work (stretching, foam rolling) can relieve muscle tension that is common in repetitive sports. Including cross-training activities (cycling, elliptical, yoga, swimming, skating) in your program reduces mental fatigue, balances the musculature and adds spice to the regimen. Think of it like making a tasty bowl of chili. It's the balance of the ingredients that makes the meal.

Practice makes perfect. Every long training run or walk is an opportunity to practice for race day. Consider it a dress rehearsal and dial in hydration on the run, the timing of your pre-run nutrition and fueling on the fly. Think of apparel, shoes and anything and everything related to race day. Keep a log and track what works and what doesn't. From chafing apparel to your favorite gel flavor, you'll create your personal training recipe for success along the way and it will serve as a means of validation when the race nerves set in the week before the event.

Beat taper madness. Speaking of nerves, a funny thing happens on the way to the start line. A tiny gremlin I call taper madness sits promptly on your shoulder about seven days out from the event with a goal to break you down mentally and emotionally. His presence can make you second-guess everything from what to eat race week to which foot to start on. This is happening as the training volume is tapering down to allow recovery from the demands of the season so you can toe the line strong, fresh and ready to rumble. The gremlin is fueled by your nerves but can be easily knocked off by keeping faith in your program. Review your log and remind yourself how far you've come. This is the time to breathe, keep the mind stimulated and the body rested. Adding mileage to soothe the mind can hurt the body on race day.

Go with what you know. If you're going to be a half marathoner, you need to know the number one rule. That is, don't try anything new on race day. Refer back to your log and stick to what is tried and true. Avoid the temptation to buy that cute, new top from the expo to wear on race day. Eat familiar foods, gels and avoid making drastic changes in your life.

Pace yourself. The number one thing you can control on race day is your pace. It is easy to get caught up in the excitement of the race and go out too fast, only to find yourself crawling across the finish line. Think tortoise, not hare, and hold back the reins for the first half of the race by keeping the effort at a pace where you can talk. If you can hear your breathing, you're running too hard. At the halfway point, begin to slowly dial up the effort and count down the miles. In the final 3 miles, go fishing. That is, focus on a runner ahead and reel them in. There is nothing in the world like having the strength to pass people (nicely) in the final miles of a race. Besides, it makes for a much cuter finish line photo.

Celebrate your accomplishment. There are very few people that will ever cross a half marathon finish line. Take the time to fully celebrate your accomplishment. Whether you choose to run another half marathon or not, you only run your first half marathon once. Take it all in and give yourself a high five. You've earned it.


Back to Top

bike NEWS




Back to Top